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Detection and Identification of Faults in Large Power Grids Using Few PMU Measurements

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 Configuration and operation of power grids have changed in the recent years as the renewable energy sources are introduced not only in the transmission grids but also in distribution systems which are historically configured in strictly radial configurations but now may have to be operated as meshed networks to account for the increasing number of renewable energy sources directly connected to these networks. Unlike transmission systems parts of the sub-transmission and distribution grids may not have sufficient number of PMUs to make them fully observable making it difficult to locate faults occurring along the line sections of such grids. This talk will consider fault location in large power grids which contain a limited number of synchronized voltage measurements. A practical approach which is based on such measurements will be presented with examples. Some of the advantages of the approach include the lack of need to place a PMU at each bus, the ability to not only detect and locate faults but also to identify their types, and the fact that the approach will work in systems with non-symmetrical line geometries under unbalanced loading conditions. The talk will describe the steps of the fault location approach and illustrate its performance on a few simulated fault scenarios involving different types of faults in large power grids. 

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