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Geophysics Seminar - Josh Crozier "Earthquakes and Magma Resonance Reveal the Dynamics of a Decade-long Eruption at Kīlauea Volcano." USGS

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The well-monitored 2008-2018 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii provides an ideal natural laboratory for examining the magma-rock interactions involved in volcanic processes. Throughout the decade long eruption, disturbances in the magma system triggered various types of seismically detectable resonance which provide an in-situ probe of the magma system. I show that inversions for these resonant signals can resolve changing magma temperature and volatile contents, revealing insights into magma recharge and convective processes. The eruption culminated in caldera collapse, which occurred via a cyclic process of ground subsidence, magnitude 5 earthquakes, and explosive eruptive plumes. I demonstrate that the eruptive plumes can be caused by collapse-induced pressurization of accumulated gas and debris, and facilitate a unique calibration of transient plume simulations. I also examine how earthquake cycle simulations applied to the collapse sequence can be used to explore fault properties, and ultimately gain a better understanding of caldera collapse eruption mechanics in a variety of volcanic settings.

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